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Modern English has abandoned the inflected Indo-European case system in favor of analytical constructions

English grammar is the way meanings are encoded in English expressions. This includes the structure of words, phrases, clauses and sentences, up to the structure of whole texts.

There are historical, social, cultural and regional variations of English. Deviations from the grammar described here occur in some dialects. This article describes the generalized modern standard English - a form of expression and writing used in public discourse, including broadcasting, education, entertainment, administration and news, in a range of registers from formal to informal. There are differences in grammar between standard forms of British, American and Australian English, although they are smaller than differences in vocabulary and pronunciation.

Modern English has largely abandoned the inflected Indo-European case system in favor of analytical constructions. Personal pronouns retain the morphological case more strongly than any other class of words (a remnant of the more extensive Germanic system in Old English). For other pronouns and all nouns, adjectives and articles, the grammatical function is indicated only in the order of words, prepositions and by the "Saxon complementary or possessive English" (-s).

Eight "word classes" or "parts of speech" are commonly distinguished in English: nouns, determinants, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions and conjunctions. Nouns form the largest class of words, and verbs the second largest. Unlike many Indo-European languages, English nouns have no grammatical gender.
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Nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs form open classes - word classes that readily accept new members, such as the noun celebutante (a celebrity who visits fashion circles) and other similar relatively new words. Others are considered closed classes. For example, the new pronoun rarely enters the language. Determinants, traditionally classified along with adjectives, were not always considered a separate part of speech. Inclusions are another class of words, but they are not described here because they are not part of the clause and sentence structure in the language.

Linguists usually accept nine English word classes: noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, conjunction, determinant and exclamation mark. English words are not generally designated for a word class. It is usually not possible to determine by word form which class it belongs to, except to some extent for words with inflected endings or derivative suffixes. On the other hand, most words belong to more than one word class. For example, run can serve as a verb or noun (they are considered two different lexemes). The lexemes can be changed to express different grammatical categories. Launching the lexeme has the form started, started, started, started and started. Words in one class can sometimes come from words in another. This can create new words. The noun aerobics recently gave rise to the adjective aerobics.

Words combine to form phrases. A phrase usually has the same function as a word in a particular word class. For example, my very good friend Peter is a phrase that can be used in a sentence as if it were a noun, and therefore is called a noun phrase. Similarly, adjective expressions and adverbial phrases act as if they were adjectives or adverbs, but for other types of phrases, the terminology has different implications. For example, a verb phrase consists of a verb along with any objects and other dependents; a prepositional phrase consists of a preposition and its complement (and therefore is usually a kind of adverbial phrase); and the defining phrase is a type of noun expression containing a determinant.

Nouns: many common suffixes form nouns from other nouns or from other types of words such as -age (as in contraction), -hood (as in sistering) and so on, although many nouns are basic forms that do not contain any such suffix (such like a cat, grass, France). Nouns are often created by converting verbs or adjectives, as in the words speaking and reading (boring conversation, assigned reading).

Nouns are sometimes classified semantically

As proper nouns and common nouns (Cyrus, China vs. frog, milk) or as concrete nouns and abstract nouns (book, laptop vs. warmth, prejudice). There is often a grammatical distinction between countable (countable) nouns, such as clock and city, and countable (uncountable) nouns, such as milk and decorations. Some nouns can function both as countable and uncountable, for example the word "wine" (it's good wine, I prefer red wine).

Countable nouns generally have singular and plural forms. In most cases, the plural is formed from the singular by adding - [e] s (as in dogs, bushes), although there are also irregular forms (female / female, foot / foot etc.), including cases where both forms are identical (sheep, series). For more information, see the plural in English. Some nouns can be used with plural verbs, even if they are singular, as in the case of the Government was ... (where the government considers itself referring to the people forming the government). This is a form of synesis; occurs more frequently in British English than American. See the plural form in English § Singular numbers in the collective sense treated as plural.

English nouns are not marked, as in some languages, but have possessive forms, adding -s (as in John, children) or only an apostrophe (without changing the pronunciation) in the case of - plural and sometimes other words ending with - s ( dog owners, Jesus' love). More generally, the ending can be used for noun expressions (like the man you saw yesterday's sister); Look below. The possessive form can be used both as an indicator (John's cat) and a noun (John is the one next to Jane).

Ownership status as affix or cluster is being debated. It differs from the variation of language nouns, such as German, in that the genitive can end at the last word of the phrase. To clarify this, possessive can be analyzed, for example as a clitic construct ("postposition enclave") or as a variation of the last word of the phrase ("edge variant").

Returns: Noun expressions are expressions that act grammatically as nouns in sentences, for example, as the subject or object of a verb. Most noun expressions have a noun as a head.

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The English noun phrase usually takes the following form (not all elements must be present):

The tag can be an article (", [n]) or other equivalent word, as described in the following section. In many contexts, the noun phrase must contain determinant. initial modifiers include adjectives and some adjective expressions (such as red, really beautiful) and noun additions (such as college in the phrase student). Adjective modifiers usually appear before noun additions.

the complement or postmodifier can be a prepositional expression (... from London), a relative expression (as ... which we saw yesterday), some adjectives or participating expressions (... sitting on the beach), or a dependent clause or an infinitive phrase suitable for a noun (for example, that the world revolves around a noun such as a fact or statement, or ... travel extensively around a noun such as desire).

An example of a noun covering all of the above-mentioned elements is a fairly attractive young student with whom you talk. Here is the determinant, rather attractive and young are the initial modifiers of the adjective, college is a noun, the noun serves as the head of the expression, and to which you spoke is a post-modifier (a relative clause in this matter). Note the order of initial modifiers; the determinant that must be first, and the college noun must come after the adjective modifiers.

Coordinating phrases, such as and, or, and, but can be used at various levels in noun expressions, as in John, Paul and Mary; matching green coat and hat; dangerous but exciting driving; sitting or standing person. See the explanations below for more explanations.

Noun expressions can also be placed in the preposition (where the next two expressions refer to the same thing) as for this president, Abraham Lincoln, ... (where this president and Abraham Lincoln are used). In some contexts, the same can be expressed in the prepositional sentence, as in the twin curses of hunger and plague (which means 'twin curses', which are 'hunger and plague').

Specific forms of noun expressions include:

phrases formed by a determinant with an adjective, as in the case of the homeless, English (these are plural numbers referring to homeless people or English in general);

phrases with a pronoun and not a noun as a head (see below);

phrases consisting only of possessive;

infinitive and gerund returns, in some items;

certain clauses, such as these and relative sentences, as he said, in some positions.

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The grammatical system, in which each noun was treated as masculine, feminine or neuter, existed in Old English but ceased to be used in the middle of England. Modern English retains features associated with the natural sex, namely the use of certain nouns and pronouns (such as he and she) to refer specifically to persons or animals of one or the other sex, and some other (such as him) for objects without sex - although feminine pronouns are sometimes used to refer to ships (and rarely some aircraft and similar machines) and national states.

Some aspects of gender use in English were influenced by the move towards gender-neutral language preferences. Animals are triple gender nouns that can take male, female, and neuter pronouns. In general, there is no difference between a man and a woman in English nouns. However, sex is sometimes exposed by different shapes or different words in relation to humans or animals.

Many nouns that mention people's roles and occupations can refer to a male or female subject, such as "cousin", "teenager", "teacher", "doctor", "student", "friend" and "colleague."

Jane is my friend. She is a dentist.

Paul is my cousin. He is a dentist.

There is often a gender distinction for these neutral nouns, inserting the words "male" or "female."

Sam is a doctor.

No, he is not my boyfriend; he is just a male friend.

I have three cousins ​​and two cousins.

Rarely, nouns that illustrate things without sex refer to the sex pronoun to convey knowledge. It is also standard to use the gender neutral pronoun (it).

I love my car. She (car) is my greatest passion.

France is currently popular with its (French) neighbors.

I traveled from England to New York on Queen Elizabeth; she (Queen Elizabeth) is a great ship.

Determinatory-relatively small class of words

English determinants are a relatively small class of words. They contain articles such [n], certain demonstrative and interrogative words such as this, and which, possessive, such as mine, and which (the determinant role can also be played by noun possessive forms, such as John and the girl), various quantitative words like all, some, many, different and numbers (one, two etc.). There are also many phrases (such as several) that can play the role of determinants.

Determinants are used to create noun expressions (see above). Many words that serve as determinants can also be used as pronouns (this, that, many, etc.)

Determinants can be used in certain combinations, such as all water and many problems

In many contexts it is required to supplement the noun phrase with an article or other identifier. It is not grammatical to say that only a cat was sitting on the table; it must be said that my cat sat on the table. The most common situations in which a full phrase of a noun without a determinant can be formulated are when it refers to the whole class or concept in general (how dangerous and subjective beauty is in dogs) and when it is a name (Jane, Spain, etc.). Is this is discussed in more detail in articles in English and in the article Zero in English.

Pronouns-relatively small, closed class of words that works in place of nouns

Pronouns are a relatively small, closed class of words that works in place of nouns or noun phrases. They include personal pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, relative pronouns, interrogative pronouns and some other, mainly indefinite pronouns.

The personal pronouns of modern standard English and the corresponding possessive forms are as follows:

Second-person forms like you are used for both singular and plural. In the southern United States, all of you are used in the plural, and other expressions like you are used elsewhere. The archaic set of second-person pronouns used as a singular reference is you, you, you, your, yours, which are still used in services and can be seen in older works such as Shakespeare - in such texts, the set of pronouns are used to refer to plural or singular as a formal form of V. You can also be used as an indefinite pronoun, referring to the person in general (see generic) compared to the more formal alternative (self, reflexive, possessive).

The singular forms of the third person vary depending on the gender of the reference. For example, it refers to a woman, sometimes to an animal, and sometimes to an object to which female attributes are attributed, such as a ship or country. The male, and sometimes the male, is referred to as "he". In other cases you can use it. (See Sex in English.) This word can also be used as a fictitious subject in sentences like: It will be sunny this afternoon.

Third person plural forms, such as these, are sometimes used in a single reference as a gender-neutral pronoun, because every employee needs to keep their desk tidy. Despite its long history, such use is sometimes considered to be non-grammatical.

Possessive determinants like mine are used as determinants along with the nouns, like those of my old man, of some of his friends. Second possessive forms, like mine, are used when they do not define the noun: as pronouns, because in mine they are greater than yours and as predicates, as it is mine. Also pay attention to the construction of my friend (which means "someone who is my friend"). See possessive English for more information.

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Demonstrative and questioning

English pronouns are (plural) and that (plural), because these are good, I like it. Note that all four words can also be used as determinants (followed by a noun) as in these cars. They can also create alternative pronoun phrases this / that, these / those.

The interrogative pronouns are who, what and which (each of them can accept the suffix -ever for emphasis). A pronoun that refers to a person or persons; has an oblique form, which (although in informal contexts it is usually replaced by whom), and a possessive form (pronoun or determinant), which. A pronoun that refers to things or summaries. A word that serves the question of alternatives from what is perceived as a closed collection: which (of books) do you like best? (It can also be an interrogative determinant: which book?; It can create alternative pronoun expressions, which one and which.) Which, who and what can be in the singular or plural, although who and what often adopts the verb in the singular regardless of any number. For more information, see who.

Relative-pronoun, referring to things rather than people

For the term "who / who" and related forms, see Who (pronoun).

The main relative pronouns in English are who (along with its derivative forms, who and whose), who and that.

The relative pronoun, referring to things rather than people, like a shirt that was once red, is faded. For people who are abused (the man who saw me was tall). The oblique case of who is who, like the man I saw, was high, although in informal registers, which is commonly used instead of whom.

Possessive form of who he is (a man whose car is missing ...); however, their use is not limited to people (it can be said that the idea has come).

A word that, as a relative pronoun, is usually found only in restrictive relative clauses (as opposed to who and who, which can be used in both limiting and non-limiting). It can refer to people or things and cannot be a preposition. For example, you could say a song I [listened to] yesterday but a song I [listened to] not yesterday. The relative pronoun, which is usually pronounced using a reduced vowel (schwa), and therefore differs from the one that shows (see Weak and strong forms in English). If this is not the subject of a relative sentence, you can skip it (the song I listened to yesterday).

A word that can be used to create a free relative clause - one that has no predecessor and which in itself is a complete noun phrase, just as I like what I like. The words anything and any can be used similarly, as pronouns (whatever he likes) or determinants (whatever book he likes). Referring to people who (ever) (and who (ever)) can be used in a similar way (but not as determining factors).

Verbs-basic form of the English verb is usually not marked with any ending

The basic form of the English verb is usually not marked with any ending, although there are some suffixes that are often used to create verbs, such as -ate (formulate), -fy (electrify) and -ise / ize (implement / implement). Many verbs also contain prefixes such as un- (unmask), out- (outlast), over- (overtake) and under- (undervalue). Verbs can also be created from nouns and adjectives by derivation of zero, as in the case of snare verb, nasal, dry and calm verbs.

Most verbs have three or four different forms in addition to the basic form: a single third person present tense in - (e) s (writes, buzzes), participle present participle and gerunda (writing), past tense (written) and - although often identical with time past - past participle (written). Regular verbs have identical past tense and past participle in -ed, but there are about 100 irregular English verbs with different forms (see list). Verbs have, have and speak also irregular forms of the third person's time (ma, doing / dʌz /, says / sɛz /). The verb has the largest number of irregular forms (am, is, is in the present tense, was, was in the past tense, was for the past participle).

Most of the so-called English tenses (or sometimes aspects) in English are created using auxiliary verbs. In addition to what is called simple present (writing, writing) and simple past (writing), there are also continuous (progressive) forms (am / is / are / was / were writing), ideal forms (have / has / had write) , and continuous writing / writing), future forms (they will write, they will write, they will write, they will write) and conditional conditions (also called "future in the past") by will. Auxiliary devices should and should sometimes replace the will and will be in the first person. For the uses of these different verb forms, see English verbs and English clause syntax.

The basic form of the verb (to be, write, play) is used as an infinitive, although there is also an "infinitive" (to be, write, play) used in many syntactic constructions. There are also infinitives corresponding to other aspects: (write), write, write. The second-person imperative is identical to the (primary) infinitive; other imperative forms can be made with let (let's go, let's go, let's eat cake).

An identical form to the infinitive can be used as the current linking mode in certain contexts: it is important that he follow them or ... be involved in the case. There is also a past in the connecting mode (different from the usual past only in the possible use were instead of instead), used in some conditional and similar sentences: if I were (or were) rich ...; if he were to come now ...; I wish she were here (or were). Detailed information can be found in English.

A passive voice is created using the verb be (at the appropriate time or form) with the verb participle of a given verb: the cars are driven, I was killed, I am tickled, it is nice to be pampered etc. the action performer can be introduced in the prepositional sentence with (as they were killed by invaders).

English modal verbs consist of basic modals that can, could, can, must, must, should, should, and should have better, and in some applications dare and need. They do not change the form for a person or a number and do not have infinitive or participle forms (except synonyms, as in the case of be / being / were can (to) for mods maybe / could). The modules are used with the basic infinitive form of the verb (I can swim, he can be killed, we can't move, we have to go?), Except for what should (we have to go).

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The dome, along with modal verbs and other auxiliary units, forms a separate class, sometimes called "special verbs" or simply "auxiliary units." They have a different syntax than ordinary lexical verbs, the more that they create their interrogative forms by simple inversion with the subject, and their negative forms by adding after the verb (could I ...? I couldn't ...). In addition to those already mentioned, this class may also include habits (although the forms he used? And which he did not use are also found), and sometimes even when they are not auxiliary (forms like your sister? And he had no idea that they are possible, although they are becoming less common). Also includes ancillary to (does, did); it is used with the basic infinitive of other verbs (those that do not belong to the class of "special verbs") to create their forms of questions and negations, as well as firm forms .

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